Following on from a post The Pedagogies in Game Based Learning, this article will look at how Gagné’s Nine Events of Instruction can be applied to game based learning.
(1) & (2) Gaining attention and Informing learners of the objective
At the start of a game, users are always informed of their learning objectives, tasks and instructions on how to play the game. Some games will have an animated sequence as an introduction to grab the users attention (Stimulus to engage).
(3) Stimulating recall of prior learning
During game play, users are required to make decisions based on knowledge obtained from previous experience. This helps them to level up and progress through the game.
(4) Presenting the stimulus
Games are visually stimulated, especially is using 3D animated characters in an immersive environment. The player is kept engaged and encouraged to continue through prompts, tasks and interesting activities.
(5) Providing learning guidance
Communication messages are displayed to help guide the player through their journey. Games usually feature a help menu and prompts if the user is lost.
(6) Eliciting performance
In order to progress through the game, players must interact with objects and non-player characters, by either clicking or walking up to them.
(7) Providing feedback
Feedback is provided in the form of communication messages, prompts, scores and character conversations.
(8) Assessing performance
Assessment is an essential part of the game to keep players motivated to succeed and continue. During the game player’s scores are logged and assessed.
(9) Enhancing retention and transfer
Knowledge gained from playing different aspects of learning games are transferable to the real world.